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Ranjan et al. propose to constrain deep features to lie on hyperspheres in order to improve robustness against adversarial examples. For the last fullyconnected layer, this is achieved by the L2softmax, which forces the features to lie on the hypersphere. For intermediate convolutional or fullyconnected layer, the same effect is achieved analogously, i.e., by normalizing inputs, scaling them and applying the convolution/weight multiplication. In experiments, the authors argue that this improves robustness against simple attacks such as FGSM and DeepFool. Also find this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/). 
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The main contribution of [Understanding the difficulty of training deep feedforward neural networks](http://jmlr.org/proceedings/papers/v9/glorot10a/glorot10a.pdf) by Glorot et al. is a **normalized weight initialization** $$W \sim U \left [  \frac{\sqrt{6}}{\sqrt{n_j + n_{j+1}}}, \frac{\sqrt{6}}{\sqrt{n_j + n_{j+1}}} \right ]$$ where $n_j \in \mathbb{N}^+$ is the number of neurons in the layer $j$. Showing some ways **how to debug neural networks** might be another reason to read the paper. The paper analyzed standard multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) on a artificial dataset of $32 \text{px} \times 32 \text{px}$ images with either one or two of the 3 shapes: triangle, parallelogram and ellipse. The MLPs varied in the activation function which was used (either sigmoid, tanh or softsign). However, no regularization was used and many minibatch epochs were learned. It might be that batch normalization / dropout might change the influence of initialization very much. Questions that remain open for me: * [How is weight initialization done today?](https://www.reddit.com/r/MLQuestions/comments/4jsge9) * Figure 4: Why is this plot not simply completely dependent on the data? * Is softsign still used? Why not? * If the only advantage of softsign is that is has the plateau later, why doesn't anybody use $\frac{1}{1+e^{0.1 \cdot x}}$ or something similar instead of the standard sigmoid activation function?
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# Object detection system overview. https://i.imgur.com/vd2YUy3.png 1. takes an input image, 2. extracts around 2000 bottomup region proposals, 3. computes features for each proposal using a large convolutional neural network (CNN), and then 4. classifies each region using classspecific linear SVMs. * RCNN achieves a mean average precision (mAP) of 53.7% on PASCAL VOC 2010. * On the 200class ILSVRC2013 detection dataset, RCNN’s mAP is 31.4%, a large improvement over OverFeat , which had the previous best result at 24.3%. ## There is a 2 challenges faced in object detection 1. localization problem 2. labeling the data 1 localization problem : * One approach frames localization as a regression problem. they report a mAP of 30.5% on VOC 2007 compared to the 58.5% achieved by our method. * An alternative is to build a slidingwindow detector. considered adopting a slidingwindow approach increases the number of convolutional layers to 5, have very large receptive fields (195 x 195 pixels) and strides (32x32 pixels) in the input image, which makes precise localization within the slidingwindow paradigm. 2 labeling the data: * The conventional solution to this problem is to use unsupervised pretraining, followed by supervise finetuning * supervised pretraining on a large auxiliary dataset (ILSVRC), followed by domain specific finetuning on a small dataset (PASCAL), * finetuning for detection improves mAP performance by 8 percentage points. * Stochastic gradient descent via back propagation was used to effective for training convolutional neural networks (CNNs) ## Object detection with RCNN This system consists of three modules * The first generates categoryindependent region proposals. These proposals define the set of candidate detections available to our detector. * The second module is a large convolutional neural network that extracts a fixedlength feature vector from each region. * The third module is a set of class specific linear SVMs. Module design 1 Region proposals * which detect mitotic cells by applying a CNN to regularlyspaced square crops. * use selective search method in fast mode (Capture All Scales, Diversification, Fast to Compute). * the time spent computing region proposals and features (13s/image on a GPU or 53s/image on a CPU) 2 Feature extraction. * extract a 4096dimensional feature vector from each region proposal using the Caffe implementation of the CNN * Features are computed by forward propagating a meansubtracted 227x227 RGB image through five convolutional layers and two fully connected layers. * warp all pixels in a tight bounding box around it to the required size * The feature matrix is typically 2000x4096 3 Test time detection * At test time, run selective search on the test image to extract around 2000 region proposals (we use selective search’s “fast mode” in all experiments). * warp each proposal and forward propagate it through the CNN in order to compute features. Then, for each class, we score each extracted feature vector using the SVM trained for that class. * Given all scored regions in an image, we apply a greedy nonmaximum suppression (for each class independently) that rejects a region if it has an intersectionover union (IoU) overlap with a higher scoring selected region larger than a learned threshold. ## Training 1 Supervised pretraining: * pretrained the CNN on a large auxiliary dataset (ILSVRC2012 classification) using imagelevel annotations only (bounding box labels are not available for this data) 2 Domainspecific finetuning. * use the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) training of the CNN parameters using only warped region proposals with learning rate of 0.001. 3 Object category classifiers. * use intersectionover union (IoU) overlap threshold method to label a region with The overlap threshold of 0.3. * Once features are extracted and training labels are applied, we optimize one linear SVM per class. * adopt the standard hard negative mining method to fit large training data in memory. ### Results on PASCAL VOC 201012 1 VOC 2010 * compared against four strong baselines including SegDPM, DPM, UVA, Regionlets. * Achieve a large improvement in mAP, from 35.1% to 53.7% mAP, while also being much faster https://i.imgur.com/0dGX9b7.png 2 ILSVRC2013 detection. * ran RCNN on the 200class ILSVRC2013 detection dataset * RCNN achieves a mAP of 31.4% https://i.imgur.com/GFbULx3.png #### Performance layerbylayer, without finetuning 1 pool5 layer * which is the max pooled output of the network’s fifth and final convolutional layer. *The pool5 feature map is 6 x6 x 256 = 9216 dimensional * each pool5 unit has a receptive field of 195x195 pixels in the original 227x227 pixel input 2 Layer fc6 * fully connected to pool5 * it multiplies a 4096x9216 weight matrix by the pool5 feature map (reshaped as a 9216dimensional vector) and then adds a vector of biases 3 Layer fc7 * It is implemented by multiplying the features computed by fc6 by a 4096 x 4096 weight matrix, and similarly adding a vector of biases and applying halfwave rectification #### Performance layerbylayer, with finetuning * CNN’s parameters finetuned on PASCAL. * finetuning increases mAP by 8.0 % points to 54.2% ### Network architectures * 16layer deep network, consisting of 13 layers of 3 _ 3 convolution kernels, with five max pooling layers interspersed, and topped with three fullyconnected layers. We refer to this network as “ONet” for OxfordNet and the baseline as “TNet” for TorontoNet. * RCNN with ONet substantially outperforms RCNN with TNet, increasing mAP from 58.5% to 66.0% * drawback in terms of compute time, with in terms of compute time, with than TNet. 1 The ILSVRC2013 detection dataset * dataset is split into three sets: train (395,918), val (20,121), and test (40,152) #### CNN features for segmentation. * full RCNN: The first strategy (full) ignores the re region’s shape and computes CNN features directly on the warped window. Two regions might have very similar bounding boxes while having very little overlap. * fg RCNN: the second strategy (fg) computes CNN features only on a region’s foreground mask. We replace the background with the mean input so that background regions are zero after mean subtraction. * full+fg RCNN: The third strategy (full+fg) simply concatenates the full and fg features https://i.imgur.com/n1bhmKo.png
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This paper is about Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer Vision. It was the first breakthrough in the ImageNet classification challenge (LSVRC2010, 1000 classes). ReLU was a key aspect which was not so often used before. The paper also used Dropout in the last two layers. ## Training details * Momentum of 0.9 * Learning rate of $\varepsilon$ (initialized at 0.01) * Weight decay of $0.0005 \cdot \varepsilon$. * Batch size of 128 * The training took 5 to 6 days on two NVIDIA GTX 580 3GB GPUs. ## See also * [Stanford presentation](http://vision.stanford.edu/teaching/cs231b_spring1415/slides/alexnet_tugce_kyunghee.pdf) 
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Keypoint detection is an important step in various tasks such as SLAM, panorama stitching, camera calibration, and more. Efficient keypoint detectors, FAST (Features from Accelerated and Segments Test) for example, would detect keypoints where a relatively high brightness change is observed in relation to surrounding pixels. Most probably, the keypoints would be located on edges, as shown below: https://i.imgur.com/ylC4BM3.jpg Let's consider another image shown below. Here, while the detector is capable of detecting many keypoints, they are mostly located on trees (see subfigure (a) below). This causes redundancy and this paper focuses on solving it by selecting locally strong keypoints that are well distributed all over the image (subfigure (c)). https://i.imgur.com/1MqZhmT.png The algorithm requires input keypoints to be sorted in decreasing order of strength. The keypoints are then processed in that order and points that fall within the suppression range of a current keypoint are removed from the consideration. The process is repeated for the next unsuppressed keypoint in the sorted order. The process continues until no points remain. If the number of filtered points is not close enough to what we require, the suppression range is modified and the process is repeated. The suppression range is modified using binary search. https://i.imgur.com/qryscZP.png Binary search requires lower and upper bounds to operate. Naive initialization would be setting lower bound to 1 pixel, while upper bound  image width or height. On the other hand, this paper proposes better initialization of the suppression range that is dependent on image height $H_I$, width $W_I$, number of input keypoints $n$ as well as the number of output keypoints $m$. * Upper bound: $\frac{H_I + W_I + 2m  \sqrt{\Delta}}{2m  1}$ (see paper for more details) * Lower bound: $\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{\frac{n}{m}}$ This initializing helps to decrease the number of iterations to convergence by a factor of three: https://i.imgur.com/7NCpgbi.png Homogenous location of keypoints is beneficial for SLAM algorithm and reduce translational and rotational errors compared to naive filtering when evaluated on KITTI: https://i.imgur.com/4wq0kLK.png Overall, this paper proposes a fast, efficient, and effective method to postprocess noisy and redundant keypoint detections with a clear benefit to SLAM. The codes are publically available in multiple languages: C++, Python, Java, and Matlab. See https://github.com/BAILOOL/ANMSCodes 