This paper provides one of the most natural examples of a learning problem for which the problem becomes computationally tractable when given a sufficient amount of data, but is computationally intractable (though still information theoretically tractable) when given a smaller quantity of data. This computational intractability is based on a complexity-theoretic assumption about the hardness of distinguishing satisfiable 3SAT formulas from random ones at a given clause density (more specifically, the 3MAJ variant of the conjecture).
The specific problem considered by the authors is learning halfspaces over 3-sparse vectors. The authors complement their negative results with nearly matching positive results (if one believes a significantly stronger complexity theoretic conjecture-- that hardness persists even for random formulae whose density is $n^\mu$ over the satistfiability threshold). Sadly, the algorithmic results are described in the Appendix, and are not discussed. It seems like they are essentially modifications of Hazan et al.'s 2012, though it would be greatly appreciated if the authors included a high-level discussion of the algorithm. Even if no formal proofs of correctness will fit in the body, a description of the algorithm would be helpful.