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Summary by David Stutz 3 years ago
Hein and Andriushchenko give a intuitive bound on the robustness of neural networks based on the local Lipschitz constant. With robustness, the authors refer a small $\epsilon$-ball around each sample; this ball is supposed to describe the region where the neural network predicts a constant class. This means that adversarial examples have to compute changes large enough to leave these robust areas. Larger $\epsilon$-balls imply higher robustness to adversarial examples.
When considering a single example $x$, and a classifier $f = (f_1, \ldots, f_K)^T$ (i.e. in a multi-class setting), the bound can be stated as follows. For $q$ and $p$ such that $\frac{1}{q} + \frac{1}{p} = 1$ and $c$ being the class predicted for $x$, the it holds
$x = \arg\max_j f_j(x + \delta)$
for all $\delta$ with
$\|\delta\|_p \leq \max_{R > 0}\min \left\{\min_{j \neq c} \frac{f_c(x) – f_j(x)}{\max_{y \in B_p(x, R)} \|\nabla f_c(y) - \nabla f_j(y)\|_q}, R\right\}$.
Here, $B_p(x, R)$ describes the $R$-ball around $x$ measured using the $p$-norm. Based on the local Lipschitz constant (in the denominator), the bound essentially measures how far we can deviate from the sample $x$ (measured in the $p$-norm) until $f_j(x) > f_c(x)$ for some $j \neq c$. The higher the local Lipschitz constant, the smaller deviations are allowed, i.e. adversarial examples are easier to find. Note that the bound also depends on the confidence, i.e. the edge $f_c(x)$ has in comparison to all other $f_j(x)$.
In the remaining paper, the authors also provide bounds for simple classifiers including linear classifiers, kernel methods and two-layer perceptrons (i.e. one hidden layer). For the latter, they also propose a new type of regularization called cross-Lipschitz regularization:
$P(f) = \frac{1}{nK^2} \sum_{i = 1}^n \sum_{l,m = 1}^K \|\nabla f_l(x_i) - \nabla f_m(x_i)\|_2^2$.
This regularization term is intended to reduce the Lipschitz constant locally around training examples. They show experimental results using this regularization on MNIST and CIFAR, see the paper for details.
Also view this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/).

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