This summary builds substantially on my summary of NERFs, so if you haven't yet read that, I recommend doing so first! The idea of a NERF is learn a neural network that represents a 3D scene, and from which you can, once the model is trained, sample an image of that scene from any desired angle. This involves structuring your neural network as a function that predicts the RGB color and density/opacity for a given point in 3D space (x, y, z), from a given viewing angle (theta, phi). With such a function, you can generate predictions of what images taken from certain angles would look like by sampling along a viewing ray, and integrating the combined hue and opacity into an aggregated view. This prediction can then be compared to a true image taken from that direction, and gradients passed backwards into the prediction model. An important assumption of this model is that the scene being photographed is static; specifically, that every point in space is always inhabited by the same part of the 3D object, regardless of what angle it's viewed from. This is a reasonable assumption for photos of inanimate objects, or of humans in highly controlled lab settings, but it is often not true for humans when you, say, ask them to take a selfie video of themselves. Even if they're trying to keep roughly still, there will be slight shifts in the location and position of their head between frames, and the authors of this paper show that this can lead to strange artifacts if you naively try to train a NERF from the images (including a particularly odd one where it hallucinates tiny copies of the image in the air surrounding the face). https://i.imgur.com/IUVh6uM.png The fix proposed by this paper is to apply a learnable deformation field to each image, where the notion is to deform each view into being in one canonical position (fixed per network, since, again, one network corresponds to a single scene). This means that, along with learning the parameters of the NERF itself, you're also learning what deformation to apply to each training image to get it into this canonical position. This is done by parametrizing the deformation in a particular way, and then having that deformation be conditioned by a latent vector that's trained similar to how you'd train an embedding (one learned vector per image example). The parametrization of the deformation is honestly a little bit over my head, given my lack of grounding in 3D modeling, but my general sense is that it applies some constraints and regularization to ensure that the learned deformations are realistic, insofar as humans are mostly rigid (one patch of skin on my forehead generally doesn't move except in concordance with the rest of my forehead), but with some possibility for elasticity (skin can stretch if I, say, smile). The authors also include an annealing scheme whereby, early in training, the model focuses on learning course (large-scale) deformations, and later in training, it's allowed to also learn weights for more precise deformations. This is to hopefully match macro-scale shifts before adding the noise of precise changes. This addition of a learned deformation is most of the contribution of this method: with it applied, they show that they're able to learn realistic NERFs from selfies, which they term "NERFIES". They mention a few pieces of concurrent work that try to solve the same problem of non-static human subjects in different ways, but I haven't had a chance to read those, so I can't really comment on how NERFIES stacks up to alternate approaches, but it appears to be as least one empirically convincing solution to the problem it's aiming at.