Welcome to ShortScience.org! |

- ShortScience.org is a platform for post-publication discussion aiming to improve accessibility and reproducibility of research ideas.
- The website has 1584 public summaries, mostly in machine learning, written by the community and organized by paper, conference, and year.
- Reading summaries of papers is useful to obtain the perspective and insight of another reader, why they liked or disliked it, and their attempt to demystify complicated sections.
- Also, writing summaries is a good exercise to understand the content of a paper because you are forced to challenge your assumptions when explaining it.
- Finally, you can keep up to date with the flood of research by reading the latest summaries on our Twitter and Facebook pages.

Algorithms for Non-negative Matrix Factorization

Lee, Daniel D. and Seung, H. Sebastian

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2000 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Lee, Daniel D. and Seung, H. Sebastian

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2000 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
We want to find two matrices $W$ and $H$ such that $V = WH$. Often a goal is to determine underlying patterns in the relationships between the concepts represented by each row and column. $W$ is some $m$ by $n$ matrix and we want the inner dimension of the factorization to be $r$. So $$\underbrace{V}_{m \times n} = \underbrace{W}_{m \times r} \underbrace{H}_{r \times n}$$ Let's consider an example matrix where of three customers (as rows) are associated with three movies (the columns) by a rating value. $$ V = \left[\begin{array}{c c c} 5 & 4 & 1 \\\\ 4 & 5 & 1 \\\\ 2 & 1 & 5 \end{array}\right] $$ We can decompose this into two matrices with $r = 1$. First lets do this without any non-negative constraint using an SVD reshaping matrices based on removing eigenvalues: $$ W = \left[\begin{array}{c c c} -0.656 \\\ -0.652 \\\ -0.379 \end{array}\right], H = \left[\begin{array}{c c c} -6.48 & -6.26 & -3.20\\\\ \end{array}\right] $$ We can also decompose this into two matrices with $r = 1$ subject to the constraint that $w_{ij} \ge 0$ and $h_{ij} \ge 0$. (Note: this is only possible when $v_{ij} \ge 0$): $$ W = \left[\begin{array}{c c c} 0.388 \\\\ 0.386 \\\\ 0.224 \end{array}\right], H = \left[\begin{array}{c c c} 11.22 & 10.57 & 5.41 \\\\ \end{array}\right] $$ Both of these $r=1$ factorizations reconstruct matrix $V$ with the same error. $$ V \approx WH = \left[\begin{array}{c c c} 4.36 & 4.11 & 2.10 \\\ 4.33 & 4.08 & 2.09 \\\ 2.52 & 2.37 & 1.21 \\\ \end{array}\right] $$ If they both yield the same reconstruction error then why is a non-negativity constraint useful? We can see above that it is easy to observe patterns in both factorizations such as similar customers and similar movies. `TODO: motivate why NMF is better` #### Paper Contribution This paper discusses two approaches for iteratively creating a non-negative $W$ and $H$ based on random initial matrices. The paper discusses a multiplicative update rule where the elements of $W$ and $H$ are iteratively transformed by scaling each value such that error is not increased. The multiplicative approach is discussed in contrast to an additive gradient decent based approach where small corrections are iteratively applied. The multiplicative approach can be reduced to this by setting the learning rate ($\eta$) to a ratio that represents the magnitude of the element in $H$ to the scaling factor of $W$ on $H$. ### Still a draft |

FaceNet: A Unified Embedding for Face Recognition and Clustering

Florian Schroff and Dmitry Kalenichenko and James Philbin

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.CV

**First published:** 2015/03/12 (9 years ago)

**Abstract:** Despite significant recent advances in the field of face recognition,
implementing face verification and recognition efficiently at scale presents
serious challenges to current approaches. In this paper we present a system,
called FaceNet, that directly learns a mapping from face images to a compact
Euclidean space where distances directly correspond to a measure of face
similarity. Once this space has been produced, tasks such as face recognition,
verification and clustering can be easily implemented using standard techniques
with FaceNet embeddings as feature vectors.
Our method uses a deep convolutional network trained to directly optimize the
embedding itself, rather than an intermediate bottleneck layer as in previous
deep learning approaches. To train, we use triplets of roughly aligned matching
/ non-matching face patches generated using a novel online triplet mining
method. The benefit of our approach is much greater representational
efficiency: we achieve state-of-the-art face recognition performance using only
128-bytes per face.
On the widely used Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) dataset, our system
achieves a new record accuracy of 99.63%. On YouTube Faces DB it achieves
95.12%. Our system cuts the error rate in comparison to the best published
result by 30% on both datasets.
We also introduce the concept of harmonic embeddings, and a harmonic triplet
loss, which describe different versions of face embeddings (produced by
different networks) that are compatible to each other and allow for direct
comparison between each other.
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Florian Schroff and Dmitry Kalenichenko and James Philbin

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.CV

[link]
FaceNet directly maps face images to $\mathbb{R}^{128}$ where distances directly correspond to a measure of face similarity. They use a triplet loss function. The triplet is (face of person A, other face of person A, face of person which is not A). Later, this is called (anchor, positive, negative). The loss function is learned and inspired by LMNN. The idea is to minimize the distance between the two images of the same person and maximize the distance to the other persons image. ## LMNN Large Margin Nearest Neighbor (LMNN) is learning a pseudo-metric $$d(x, y) = (x -y) M (x -y)^T$$ where $M$ is a positive-definite matrix. The only difference between a pseudo-metric and a metric is that $d(x, y) = 0 \Leftrightarrow x = y$ does not hold. ## Curriculum Learning: Triplet selection Show simple examples first, then increase the difficulty. This is done by selecting the triplets. They use the triplets which are *hard*. For the positive example, this means the distance between the anchor and the positive example is high. For the negative example this means the distance between the anchor and the negative example is low. They want to have $$||f(x_i^a) - f(x_i^p)||_2^2 + \alpha < ||f(x_i^a) - f(x_i^n)||_2^2$$ where $\alpha$ is a margin and $x_i^a$ is the anchor, $x_i^p$ is the positive face example and $x_i^n$ is the negative example. They increase $\alpha$ over time. It is crucial that $f$ maps the images not in the complete $\mathbb{R}^{128}$, but on the unit sphere. Otherwise one could double $\alpha$ by simply making $f' = 2 \cdot f$. ## Tasks * **Face verification**: Is this the same person? * **Face recognition**: Who is this person? ## Datasets * 99.63% accuracy on Labeled FAces in the Wild (LFW) * 95.12% accuracy on YouTube Faces DB ## Network Two models are evaluated: The [Zeiler & Fergus model](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/ZeilerF13) and an architecture based on the [Inception model](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/SzegedyLJSRAEVR14). ## See also * [DeepFace](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=conf/cvpr/TaigmanYRW14#martinthoma) |

Sequence-to-Sequence Learning as Beam-Search Optimization

Sam Wiseman and Alexander M. Rush

arXiv e-Print archive - 2016 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.CL, cs.LG, cs.NE, stat.ML

**First published:** 2016/06/09 (7 years ago)

**Abstract:** Sequence-to-Sequence (seq2seq) modeling has rapidly become an important
general-purpose NLP tool that has proven effective for many text-generation and
sequence-labeling tasks. Seq2seq builds on deep neural language modeling and
inherits its remarkable accuracy in estimating local, next-word distributions.
In this work, we introduce a model and beam-search training scheme, based on
the work of Daume III and Marcu (2005), that extends seq2seq to learn global
sequence scores. This structured approach avoids classical biases associated
with local training and unifies the training loss with the test-time usage,
while preserving the proven model architecture of seq2seq and its efficient
training approach. We show that our system outperforms a highly-optimized
attention-based seq2seq system and other baselines on three different sequence
to sequence tasks: word ordering, parsing, and machine translation.
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Sam Wiseman and Alexander M. Rush

arXiv e-Print archive - 2016 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.CL, cs.LG, cs.NE, stat.ML

[link]
**Problem Setting:** Sequence to Sequence learning (seq2seq) is one of the most successful techniques in machine learning nowadays. The basic idea is to encode a sequence into a vector (or a sequence of vectors if using attention based encoder) and then use a recurrent decoder to decode the target sequence conditioned on the encoder output. While researchers have explored various architectural changes to this basic encoder-decoder model, the standard way of training such seq2seq models is to maximize the likelihood of each successive target word conditioned on the input sequence and the *gold* history of target words. This is also known as *teacher-forcing* in RNN literature. Such an approach has three major issues: 1. **Exposure Bias:** Since we teacher-force the model with *gold* history during training, the model is never exposed to its errors during training. At test time, we will not have access to *gold* history and we feed the history generated by the model. If it is erroneous, the model does not have any clue about how to rectify it. 2. **Loss-Evaluation Mismatch:** While we evaluate the model using sequence level metrics (such as BLEU for Machine Translation), we are training the model with word level cross entropy loss. 3. **Label bias:** Since the word probabilities are normalized at each time step (by using softmax over the final layer of the decoder), this can result in label bias if we vary the number of possible candidates in each step. More about this later. **Solution:** This paper proposes an alternative training procedure for seq2seq models which attempt to solve all the 3 major issues listed above. The idea is to pose seq2seq learning as beam-search optimization problem. Authors begin by removing the final softmax activation function from the decoder. Now instead of probability distributions, we will get score for next possible word. Then the training procedure is changed as follows: At every time step $t$, they maintain a set $S_t$ of $K$ candidate sequences of length $t$. Now the loss function is defined with the following characteristics: 1. If the *gold* sub-sequence of length $t$ is in set $S_t$ and the score for *gold* sub-sequence exceeds the score of the $K$-th ranked candidate by a margin, the model incurs no loss. Now the candidates for next time-step are chosen in a way similar to regular beam-search with beam-size $K$. 2. If the *gold* sub-sequence of length $t$ is in set $S_t$ and it is the $K$-th ranked candidate, then the loss will push the *gold* sequence up by increasing its score. The candidates for next time-step are chosen in a way similar as first case. 3. If the *gold* sub-sequence of length $t$ is NOT in set $S_t$, then the score of the *gold* sequence is increased to be higher than $K$-th ranked candidate by a margin. In this case, candidates for next step or chosen by only considering *gold* word at time $t$ and getting its top-$K$ successors. 4. Further, since we want the full *gold* sequence to be at top of the beam at the end of the search, when $t=T$, the loss is modified to require the score of *gold* sequence to exceed the score of the *highest* ranked incorrect prediction by a margin. This non-probabilistic training method has several advantages: * The model is trained in a similar way it would be tested, since we use beam-search during training as well as testing. Hence this helps to eliminate exposure bias. * The score based loss can be easily scaled by a mistake-specific cost function. For example, in MT, one could use a cost function which is inversely proportional to BLEU score. So there is no loss-evaluation mismatch. * Each time step can have different set of successor words based on any hard constraints in the problem. Note that the model is non-probabilistic and hence this varying successor function will not introduce any label bias. Refer [this set of slides][1] for an excellent illustration of label bias. Cost of forward-prop grows linearly with respect to beam size $K$. However, GPU implementation should help to reduce this cost. Authors propose a clever way of doing BPTT which makes the back-prop almost same cost as ordinary seq2seq training. **Additional Tricks** 1. Authors pre-train the seq2seq model with regular word level cross-entropy loss and this is crucial since random initialization did not work. 2. Authors use "curriculum beam" strategy in training where they start with beam size of 2 and increase the beam size by 1 for every 2 epochs until it reaches the required beam size. You have to train your model with training beam size of at least test beam size + 1. (i.e $K_{tr} >= K_{te} + 1$). 3. When you use drop-out, you need to be careful to use the same dropout value during back-prop. Authors do this by sharing a single dropout across all sequences in a time step. **Experiments** Authors compare the proposed model against basic seq2seq in word ordering, dependency parsing and MT tasks. The proposed model achieves significant improvement over the strong baseline. **Related Work:** The whole idea of the paper is based on [learning as search optimization (LaSO) framework][2] of Daume III and Marcu (2005). Other notable related work are training seq2seq models using mix of cross-entropy and REINFORCE called [MIXER][3] and [an actor-critic based seq2seq training][4]. Authors compare with MIXER and they do significantly better than MIXER. **My two cents:** This is one of the important research directions in my opinion. While other recent methods attempt to use reinforcement learning to avoid the issues in word-level cross-entropy training, this paper proposes a really simple score based solution which works very well. While most of the language generation research is stuck with probabilistic framework (I am saying this w.r.t Deep NLP research), this paper highlights the benefits on non-probabilistic generation models. I see this as one potential way of avoiding the nasty scalability issues that come with softmax based generative models. [1]: http://www.cs.stanford.edu/~nmramesh/crf [2]: https://www.isi.edu/~marcu/papers/daume05laso.pdf [3]: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.06732v7.pdf [4]: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.07086v2.pdf |

3D Human Pose Estimation in Video With Temporal Convolutions and Semi-Supervised Training

Pavllo, Dario and Feichtenhofer, Christoph and Grangier, David and Auli, Michael

The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: 3D, Human, estimation, pose

Pavllo, Dario and Feichtenhofer, Christoph and Grangier, David and Auli, Michael

The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: 3D, Human, estimation, pose

[link]
This paper proposes a 3D human pose estimation in video method based on the dilated temporal convolutions applied on 2D keypoints (input to the network). 2D keypoints can be obtained using any person keypoint detector, but Mask R-CNN with ResNet-101 backbone, pre-trained on COCO and fine-tuned on 2D projections from Human3.6M, is used in the paper. https://i.imgur.com/CdQONiN.png The poses are presented as 2D keypoint coordinates in contrast to using heatmaps (i.e. Gaussian operation applied at the keypoint 2D location). Thus, 1D convolutions over the time series are applied, instead of 2D convolutions over heatmaps. The model is a fully convolutional architecture with residual connections that takes a sequence of 2D poses ( concatenated $(x,y)$ coordinates of the joints in each frame) as input and transforms them through temporal convolutions. https://i.imgur.com/tCZvt6M.png The `Slice` layer in the residual connection performs padding (or slicing) the sequence with replicas of boundary frames (to both left and right) to match the dimensions with the main block as zero-padding is not used in the convolution operations. 3D pose estimation is a difficult task particularly due to the limited data available online. Therefore, the authors propose semi-supervised approach of training the 2D->3D pose estimation by exploiting unlabeled video. Specifically, 2D keypoints are detected in the unlabeled video with any keypoint detector, then 3D keypoints are predicted from them and these 3D points are reprojected back to 2D (camera intrinsic parameters are required). This is idea similar to cycle consistency in the [CycleGAN](https://junyanz.github.io/CycleGAN/), for instance. https://i.imgur.com/CBHxFOd.png In the semi-supervised part (bottom part of the image above) training penalizes when the reprojected 2D keypoints are far from the original input. Weighted mean per-joint position error (WMPJPE) loss, weighted by the inverse of the depth to the object (since far objects should contribute less to the training than close ones) is used as the optimization goal. The two networks (`supervised` above, `semi-supervised` below) have the same architecture but do not share any weights. They are jointly optimized where `semi-supervised` part serves as a regularizer. They communicate through the path aiming to make sure that the mean bone length of the above and below branches match. The interesting tendency is observed from the MPJPE analysis with different amounts of supervised and unsupervised data available. Basically, the `semi-supervised` approach becomes more effective when less labeled data is available. https://i.imgur.com/bHpVcSi.png Additionally, the error is reduced when the ground truth keypoints are used. This means that a robust and accurate 2D keypoint detector is essential for the accurate 3D pose estimation in this setting. https://i.imgur.com/rhhTDfo.png |

MagNet: A Two-Pronged Defense against Adversarial Examples

Meng, Dongyu and Chen, Hao

ACM ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Meng, Dongyu and Chen, Hao

ACM ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
Meng and Chen propose MagNet, a combination of adversarial example detection and removal. At test time, given a clean or adversarial test image, the proposed defense works as follows: First, the input is passed through one or multiple detectors. If one of these detectors fires, the input is rejected. To this end, the authors consider detection based on the reconstruction error of an auto-encoder or detection based on the divergence between probability predictions (on adversarial vs. clean example). Second, if not rejected, the input is passed through a reformed. The reformer reconstructs the input, e.g., through an auto-encoder, to remove potentially undetected adversarial noise. Also find this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/). |

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