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- ShortScience.org is a platform for post-publication discussion aiming to improve accessibility and reproducibility of research ideas.
- The website has 1584 public summaries, mostly in machine learning, written by the community and organized by paper, conference, and year.
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Learning Representations for Counterfactual Inference

Johansson, Fredrik D. and Shalit, Uri and Sontag, David

arXiv e-Print archive - 2016 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Johansson, Fredrik D. and Shalit, Uri and Sontag, David

arXiv e-Print archive - 2016 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
This paper presents a method to train a neural network to make predictions for *counterfactual* questions. In short, such questions are questions about what the result of an intervention would have been, had a different choice for the intervention been made (e.g. *Would this patient have lower blood sugar had she received a different medication?*). One approach to tackle this problem is to collect data of the form $(x_i, t_i, y_i^F)$ where $x_i$ describes a situation (e.g. a patient), $t_i$ describes the intervention made (in this paper $t_i$ is binary, e.g. $t_i = 1$ if a new treatment is used while $t_i = 0$ would correspond to using the current treatment) and $y_i^F$ is the factual outcome of the intervention $t_i$ for $x_i$. From this training data, a predictor $h(x,t)$ taking the pair $(x_i, t_i)$ as input and outputting a prediction for $y_i^F$ could be trained. From this predictor, one could imagine answering counterfactual questions by feeding $(x_i, 1-t_i)$ (i.e. a description of the same situation $x_i$ but with the opposite intervention $1-t_i$) to our predictor and comparing the prediction $h(x_i, 1-t_i)$ with $y_i^F$. This would give us an estimate of the change in the outcome, had a different intervention been made, thus providing an answer to our counterfactual question. The authors point out that this scenario is related to that of domain adaptation (more specifically to the special case of covariate shift) in which the input training distribution (here represented by inputs $(x_i,t_i)$) is different from the distribution of inputs that will be fed at test time to our predictor (corresponding to the inputs $(x_i, 1-t_i)$). If the choice of intervention $t_i$ is evenly spread and chosen independently from $x_i$, the distributions become the same. However, in observational studies, the choice of $t_i$ for some given $x_i$ is often not independent of $x_i$ and made according to some unknown policy. This is the situation of interest in this paper. Thus, the authors propose an approach inspired by the domain adaptation literature. Specifically, they propose to have the predictor $h(x,t)$ learn a representation of $x$ that is indiscriminate of the intervention $t$ (see Figure 2 for the proposed neural network architecture). Indeed, this is a notion that is [well established][1] in the domain adaptation literature and has been exploited previously using regularization terms based on [adversarial learning][2] and [maximum mean discrepancy][3]. In this paper, the authors used instead a regularization (noted in the paper as $disc(\Phi_{t=0},\Phi_ {t=1})$) based on the so-called discrepancy distance of [Mansour et al.][4], adapting its use to the case of a neural network. As an example, imagine that in our dataset, a new treatment ($t=1$) was much more frequently used than not ($t=0$) for men. Thus, for men, relatively insufficient evidence for counterfactual inference is expected to be found in our training dataset. Intuitively, we would thus want our predictor to not rely as much on that "feature" of patients when inferring the impact of the treatment. In addition to this term, the authors also propose incorporating an additional regularizer where the prediction $h(x_i,1-t_i)$ on counterfactual inputs is pushed to be as close as possible to the target $y_{j}^F$ of the observation $x_j$ that is closest to $x_i$ **and** actually had the counterfactual intervention $t_j = 1-t_i$. The paper first shows a bound relating the counterfactual generalization error to the discrepancy distance. Moreover, experiments simulating counterfactual inference tasks are presented, in which performance is measured by comparing the predicted treatment effects (as estimated by the difference between the observed effect $y_i^F$ for the observed treatment and the predicted effect $h(x_i, 1-t_i)$ for the opposite treatment) with the real effect (known here because the data is simulated). The paper shows that the proposed approach using neural networks outperforms several baselines on this task. **My two cents** The connection with domain adaptation presented here is really clever and enlightening. This sounds like a very compelling approach to counterfactual inference, which can exploit a lot of previous work on domain adaptation. The paper mentions that selecting the hyper-parameters (such as the regularization terms weights) in this scenario is not a trivial task. Indeed, measuring performance here requires knowing the true difference in intervention outcomes, which in practice usually cannot be known (e.g. two treatments usually cannot be given to the same patient once). In the paper, they somewhat "cheat" by using the ground truth difference in outcomes to measure out-of-sample performance, which the authors admit is unrealistic. Thus, an interesting avenue for future work would be to design practical hyper-parameter selection procedures for this scenario. I wonder whether the *reverse cross-validation* approach we used in our work on our adversarial approach to domain adaptation (see [Section 5.1.2][5]) could successfully be used here. Finally, I command the authors for presenting such a nicely written description of counterfactual inference problem setup in general, I really enjoyed it! [1]: https://papers.nips.cc/paper/2983-analysis-of-representations-for-domain-adaptation.pdf [2]: http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.07818 [3]: http://ijcai.org/Proceedings/09/Papers/200.pdf [4]: http://www.cs.nyu.edu/~mohri/pub/nadap.pdf [5]: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.07818v4.pdf#page=16 |

Generative adversarial networks uncover epidermal regulators and predict single cell perturbations

Arsham Ghahramani and Fiona M Watt and Nicholas M Luscombe

bioRxiv: The preprint server for biology - 2018 via Local CrossRef

Keywords:

Arsham Ghahramani and Fiona M Watt and Nicholas M Luscombe

bioRxiv: The preprint server for biology - 2018 via Local CrossRef

Keywords:

[link]
Lee et al. propose a variant of adversarial training where a generator is trained simultaneously to generated adversarial perturbations. This approach follows the idea that it is possible to “learn” how to generate adversarial perturbations (as in [1]). In this case, the authors use the gradient of the classifier with respect to the input as hint for the generator. Both generator and classifier are then trained in an adversarial setting (analogously to generative adversarial networks), see the paper for details. [1] Omid Poursaeed, Isay Katsman, Bicheng Gao, Serge Belongie. Generative Adversarial Perturbations. ArXiv, abs/1712.02328, 2017. |

Mask R-CNN

He, Kaiming and Gkioxari, Georgia and Dollár, Piotr and Girshick, Ross B.

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

He, Kaiming and Gkioxari, Georgia and Dollár, Piotr and Girshick, Ross B.

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
Mask RCNN takes off from where Faster RCNN left, with some augmentations aimed at bettering instance segmentation (which was out of scope for FRCNN). Instance segmentation was achieved remarkably well in *DeepMask* , *SharpMask* and later *Feature Pyramid Networks* (FPN). Faster RCNN was not designed for pixel-to-pixel alignment between network inputs and outputs. This is most evident in how RoIPool , the de facto core operation for attending to instances, performs coarse spatial quantization for feature extraction. Mask RCNN fixes that by introducing RoIAlign in place of RoIPool. #### Methodology Mask RCNN retains most of the architecture of Faster RCNN. It adds the a third branch for segmentation. The third branch takes the output from RoIAlign layer and predicts binary class masks for each class. ##### Major Changes and intutions **Mask prediction** Mask prediction segmentation predicts a binary mask for each RoI using fully convolution - and the stark difference being usage of *sigmoid* activation for predicting final mask instead of *softmax*, implies masks don't compete with each other. This *decouples* segmentation from classification. The class prediction branch is used for class prediction and for calculating loss, the mask of predicted loss is used calculating Lmask. Also, they show that a single class agnostic mask prediction works almost as effective as separate mask for each class, thereby supporting their method of decoupling classification from segmentation **RoIAlign** RoIPool first quantizes a floating-number RoI to the discrete granularity of the feature map, this quantized RoI is then subdivided into spatial bins which are themselves quantized, and finally feature values covered by each bin are aggregated (usually by max pooling). Instead of quantization of the RoI boundaries or bin bilinear interpolation is used to compute the exact values of the input features at four regularly sampled locations in each RoI bin, and aggregate the result (using max or average). **Backbone architecture** Faster RCNN uses a VGG like structure for extracting features from image, weights of which were shared among RPN and region detection layers. Herein, authors experiment with 2 backbone architectures - ResNet based VGG like in FRCNN and ResNet based [FPN](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/LinDGHHB16) based. FPN uses convolution feature maps from previous layers and recombining them to produce pyramid of feature maps to be used for prediction instead of single-scale feature layer (final output of conv layer before connecting to fc layers was used in Faster RCNN) **Training Objective** The training objective looks like this ![](https://i.imgur.com/snUq73Q.png) Lmask is the addition from Faster RCNN. The method to calculate was mentioned above #### Observation Mask RCNN performs significantly better than COCO instance segmentation winners *without any bells and whiskers*. Detailed results are available in the paper |

Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift

Sergey Ioffe and Christian Szegedy

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.LG

**First published:** 2015/02/11 (9 years ago)

**Abstract:** Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the
distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters
of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower
learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously
hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this
phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing
layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of
the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training
mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and
be less careful about initialization. It also acts as a regularizer, in some
cases eliminating the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image
classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14
times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant
margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the
best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.9% top-5
validation error (and 4.8% test error), exceeding the accuracy of human raters.
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Sergey Ioffe and Christian Szegedy

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.LG

[link]
### What is BN: * Batch Normalization (BN) is a normalization method/layer for neural networks. * Usually inputs to neural networks are normalized to either the range of [0, 1] or [-1, 1] or to mean=0 and variance=1. The latter is called *Whitening*. * BN essentially performs Whitening to the intermediate layers of the networks. ### How its calculated: * The basic formula is $x^* = (x - E[x]) / \sqrt{\text{var}(x)}$, where $x^*$ is the new value of a single component, $E[x]$ is its mean within a batch and `var(x)` is its variance within a batch. * BN extends that formula further to $x^{**} = gamma * x^* +$ beta, where $x^{**}$ is the final normalized value. `gamma` and `beta` are learned per layer. They make sure that BN can learn the identity function, which is needed in a few cases. * For convolutions, every layer/filter/kernel is normalized on its own (linear layer: each neuron/node/component). That means that every generated value ("pixel") is treated as an example. If we have a batch size of N and the image generated by the convolution has width=P and height=Q, we would calculate the mean (E) over `N*P*Q` examples (same for the variance). ### Theoretical effects: * BN reduces *Covariate Shift*. That is the change in distribution of activation of a component. By using BN, each neuron's activation becomes (more or less) a gaussian distribution, i.e. its usually not active, sometimes a bit active, rare very active. * Covariate Shift is undesirable, because the later layers have to keep adapting to the change of the type of distribution (instead of just to new distribution parameters, e.g. new mean and variance values for gaussian distributions). * BN reduces effects of exploding and vanishing gradients, because every becomes roughly normal distributed. Without BN, low activations of one layer can lead to lower activations in the next layer, and then even lower ones in the next layer and so on. ### Practical effects: * BN reduces training times. (Because of less Covariate Shift, less exploding/vanishing gradients.) * BN reduces demand for regularization, e.g. dropout or L2 norm. (Because the means and variances are calculated over batches and therefore every normalized value depends on the current batch. I.e. the network can no longer just memorize values and their correct answers.) * BN allows higher learning rates. (Because of less danger of exploding/vanishing gradients.) * BN enables training with saturating nonlinearities in deep networks, e.g. sigmoid. (Because the normalization prevents them from getting stuck in saturating ranges, e.g. very high/low values for sigmoid.) ![MNIST and neuron activations](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/aleju/papers/master/neural-nets/images/Batch_Normalization__performance_and_activations.png?raw=true "MNIST and neuron activations") *BN applied to MNIST (a), and activations of a randomly selected neuron over time (b, c), where the middle line is the median activation, the top line is the 15th percentile and the bottom line is the 85th percentile.* ------------------------- ### Rough chapter-wise notes * (2) Towards Reducing Covariate Shift * Batch Normalization (*BN*) is a special normalization method for neural networks. * In neural networks, the inputs to each layer depend on the outputs of all previous layers. * The distributions of these outputs can change during the training. Such a change is called a *covariate shift*. * If the distributions stayed the same, it would simplify the training. Then only the parameters would have to be readjusted continuously (e.g. mean and variance for normal distributions). * If using sigmoid activations, it can happen that one unit saturates (very high/low values). That is undesired as it leads to vanishing gradients for all units below in the network. * BN fixes the means and variances of layer inputs to specific values (zero mean, unit variance). * That accomplishes: * No more covariate shift. * Fixes problems with vanishing gradients due to saturation. * Effects: * Networks learn faster. (As they don't have to adjust to covariate shift any more.) * Optimizes gradient flow in the network. (As the gradient becomes less dependent on the scale of the parameters and their initial values.) * Higher learning rates are possible. (Optimized gradient flow reduces risk of divergence.) * Saturating nonlinearities can be safely used. (Optimized gradient flow prevents the network from getting stuck in saturated modes.) * BN reduces the need for dropout. (As it has a regularizing effect.) * How BN works: * BN normalizes layer inputs to zero mean and unit variance. That is called *whitening*. * Naive method: Train on a batch. Update model parameters. Then normalize. Doesn't work: Leads to exploding biases while distribution parameters (mean, variance) don't change. * A proper method has to include the current example *and* all previous examples in the normalization step. * This leads to calculating in covariance matrix and its inverse square root. That's expensive. The authors found a faster way. * (3) Normalization via Mini-Batch Statistics * Each feature (component) is normalized individually. (Due to cost, differentiability.) * Normalization according to: `componentNormalizedValue = (componentOldValue - E[component]) / sqrt(Var(component))` * Normalizing each component can reduce the expressitivity of nonlinearities. Hence the formula is changed so that it can also learn the identiy function. * Full formula: `newValue = gamma * componentNormalizedValue + beta` (gamma and beta learned per component) * E and Var are estimated for each mini batch. * BN is fully differentiable. Formulas for gradients/backpropagation are at the end of chapter 3 (page 4, left). * (3.1) Training and Inference with Batch-Normalized Networks * During test time, E and Var of each component can be estimated using all examples or alternatively with moving averages estimated during training. * During test time, the BN formulas can be simplified to a single linear transformation. * (3.2) Batch-Normalized Convolutional Networks * Authors recommend to place BN layers after linear/fully-connected layers and before the ninlinearities. * They argue that the linear layers have a better distribution that is more likely to be similar to a gaussian. * Placing BN after the nonlinearity would also not eliminate covariate shift (for some reason). * Learning a separate bias isn't necessary as BN's formula already contains a bias-like term (beta). * For convolutions they apply BN equally to all features on a feature map. That creates effective batch sizes of m\*pq, where m is the number of examples in the batch and p q are the feature map dimensions (height, width). BN for linear layers has a batch size of m. * gamma and beta are then learned per feature map, not per single pixel. (Linear layers: Per neuron.) * (3.3) Batch Normalization enables higher learning rates * BN normalizes activations. * Result: Changes to early layers don't amplify towards the end. * BN makes it less likely to get stuck in the saturating parts of nonlinearities. * BN makes training more resilient to parameter scales. * Usually, large learning rates cannot be used as they tend to scale up parameters. Then any change to a parameter amplifies through the network and can lead to gradient explosions. * With BN gradients actually go down as parameters increase. Therefore, higher learning rates can be used. * (something about singular values and the Jacobian) * (3.4) Batch Normalization regularizes the model * Usually: Examples are seen on their own by the network. * With BN: Examples are seen in conjunction with other examples (mean, variance). * Result: Network can't easily memorize the examples any more. * Effect: BN has a regularizing effect. Dropout can be removed or decreased in strength. * (4) Experiments * (4.1) Activations over time ** They tested BN on MNIST with a 100x100x10 network. (One network with BN before each nonlinearity, another network without BN for comparison.) ** Batch Size was 60. ** The network with BN learned faster. Activations of neurons (their means and variances over several examples) seemed to be more consistent during training. ** Generalization of the BN network seemed to be better. * (4.2) ImageNet classification ** They applied BN to the Inception network. ** Batch Size was 32. ** During training they used (compared to original Inception training) a higher learning rate with more decay, no dropout, less L2, no local response normalization and less distortion/augmentation. ** They shuffle the data during training (i.e. each batch contains different examples). ** Depending on the learning rate, they either achieve the same accuracy (as in the non-BN network) in 14 times fewer steps (5x learning rate) or a higher accuracy in 5 times fewer steps (30x learning rate). ** BN enables training of Inception networks with sigmoid units (still a bit lower accuracy than ReLU). ** An ensemble of 6 Inception networks with BN achieved better accuracy than the previously best network for ImageNet. * (5) Conclusion ** BN is similar to a normalization layer suggested by Gülcehre and Bengio. However, they applied it to the outputs of nonlinearities. ** They also didn't have the beta and gamma parameters (i.e. their normalization could not learn the identity function). |

Inverted Residuals and Linear Bottlenecks: Mobile Networks for Classification, Detection and Segmentation

Mark Sandler and Andrew Howard and Menglong Zhu and Andrey Zhmoginov and Liang-Chieh Chen

arXiv e-Print archive - 2018 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.CV

**First published:** 2018/01/13 (6 years ago)

**Abstract:** In this paper we describe a new mobile architecture, MobileNetV2, that
improves the state of the art performance of mobile models on multiple tasks
and benchmarks as well as across a spectrum of different model sizes. We also
describe efficient ways of applying these mobile models to object detection in
a novel framework we call SSDLite. Additionally, we demonstrate how to build
mobile semantic segmentation models through a reduced form of DeepLabv3 which
we call Mobile DeepLabv3.
The MobileNetV2 architecture is based on an inverted residual structure where
the input and output of the residual block are thin bottleneck layers opposite
to traditional residual models which use expanded representations in the input
an MobileNetV2 uses lightweight depthwise convolutions to filter features in
the intermediate expansion layer. Additionally, we find that it is important to
remove non-linearities in the narrow layers in order to maintain
representational power. We demonstrate that this improves performance and
provide an intuition that led to this design. Finally, our approach allows
decoupling of the input/output domains from the expressiveness of the
transformation, which provides a convenient framework for further analysis. We
measure our performance on Imagenet classification, COCO object detection, VOC
image segmentation. We evaluate the trade-offs between accuracy, and number of
operations measured by multiply-adds (MAdd), as well as the number of
parameters
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Mark Sandler and Andrew Howard and Menglong Zhu and Andrey Zhmoginov and Liang-Chieh Chen

arXiv e-Print archive - 2018 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.CV

[link]
This work expands on prior techniques for designing models that can both be stored using fewer parameters, and also execute using fewer operations and less memory, both of which are key desiderata for having trained machine learning models be usable on phones and other personal devices. The main contribution of the original MobileNets paper was to introduce the idea of using "factored" decompositions of Depthwise and Pointwise convolutions, which separate the procedures of "pull information from a spatial range" and "mix information across channels" into two distinct steps. In this paper, they continue to use this basic Depthwise infrastructure, but also add a new design element: the inverted-residual linear bottleneck. The reasoning behind this new layer type comes from the observation that, often, the set of relevant points in a high-dimensional space (such as the 'per-pixel' activations inside a conv net) actually lives on a lower-dimensional manifold. So, theoretically, and naively, one could just try to use lower dimensional internal representations to map the dimensionality of that assumed manifold. However, the authors argue that ReLU non-linearities kill information (because of the region where all inputs are mapped to zero), and so having layers contain only the number of dimensions needed for the manifold would mean that you end up with too-few dimensions after the ReLU information loss. However, you need to have non-linearities somewhere in the network in order to be able to learn complex, non-linear functions. So, the authors suggest a method to mostly use smaller-dimensional representations internally, but still maintain ReLus and the network's needed complexity. https://i.imgur.com/pN4d9Wi.png - A lower-dimensional output is "projected up" into a higher dimensional output - A ReLu is applied on this higher-dimensional layer - That layer is then projected down into a smaller-dimensional layer, which uses a linear activation to avoid information loss - A residual connection between the lower-dimensional output at the beginning and end of the expansion This way, we still maintain the network's non-linearity, but also replace some of the network's higher-dimensional layers with lower-dimensional linear ones |

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