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- ShortScience.org is a platform for post-publication discussion aiming to improve accessibility and reproducibility of research ideas.
- The website has 1567 public summaries, mostly in machine learning, written by the community and organized by paper, conference, and year.
- Reading summaries of papers is useful to obtain the perspective and insight of another reader, why they liked or disliked it, and their attempt to demystify complicated sections.
- Also, writing summaries is a good exercise to understand the content of a paper because you are forced to challenge your assumptions when explaining it.
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Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift

Ioffe, Sergey and Szegedy, Christian

International Conference on Machine Learning - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Ioffe, Sergey and Szegedy, Christian

International Conference on Machine Learning - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
The main contribution of this paper is introducing a new transformation that the authors call Batch Normalization (BN). The need for BN comes from the fact that during the training of deep neural networks (DNNs) the distribution of each layer’s input change. This phenomenon is called internal covariate shift (ICS). #### What is BN? Normalize each (scalar) feature independently with respect to the mean and variance of the mini batch. Scale and shift the normalized values with two new parameters (per activation) that will be learned. The BN consists of making normalization part of the model architecture. #### What do we gain? According to the author, the use of BN provides a great speed up in the training of DNNs. In particular, the gains are greater when it is combined with higher learning rates. In addition, BN works as a regularizer for the model which allows to use less dropout or less L2 normalization. Furthermore, since the distribution of the inputs is normalized, it also allows to use sigmoids as activation functions without the saturation problem. #### What follows? This seems to be specially promising for training recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The vanishing and exploding gradient problems \cite{journals/tnn/BengioSF94} have their origin in the iteration of transformation that scale up or down the activations in certain directions (eigenvectors). It seems that this regularization would be specially useful in this context since this would allow the gradient to flow more easily. When we unroll the RNNs, we usually have ultra deep networks. #### Like * Simple idea that seems to improve training. * Makes training faster. * Simple to implement. Probably. * You can be less careful with initialization. #### Dislike * Does not work with stochastic gradient descent (minibatch size = 1). * This could reduce the parallelism of the algorithm since now all the examples in a mini batch are tied. * Results on ensemble of networks for ImageNet makes it harder to evaluate the relevance of BN by itself. (Although they do mention the performance of a single model). |

Comparing Rewinding and Fine-tuning in Neural Network Pruning

Renda, Alex and Frankle, Jonathan and Carbin, Michael

International Conference on Learning Representations - 2020 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Renda, Alex and Frankle, Jonathan and Carbin, Michael

International Conference on Learning Representations - 2020 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
This is an interestingly pragmatic paper that makes a super simple observation. Often, we may want a usable network with fewer parameters, to make our network more easily usable on small devices. It's been observed (by these same authors, in fact), that pruned networks can achieve comparable weights to their fully trained counterparts if you rewind and retrain from early in the training process, to compensate for the loss of the (not ultimately important) pruned weights. This observation has been dubbed the "Lottery Ticket Hypothesis", after the idea that there's some small effective subnetwork you can find if you sample enough networks. Given these two facts - the usefulness of pruning, and the success of weight rewinding - the authors explore the effectiveness of various ways to train after pruning. Current standard practice is to prune low-magnitude weights, and then continue training remaining weights from values they had at pruning time, keeping the final learning rate of the network constant. The authors find that: 1. Weight rewinding, where you rewind weights to *near* their starting value, and then retrain using the learning rates of early in training, outperforms fine tuning from the place weights were when you pruned but, also 2. Learning rate rewinding, where you keep weights as they are, but rewind learning rates to what they were early in training, are actually the most effective for a given amount of training time/search cost To me, this feels a little bit like burying the lede: the takeaway seems to be that when you prune, it's beneficial to make your network more "elastic" (in the metaphor-to-neuroscience sense) so it can more effectively learn to compensate for the removed neurons. So, what was really valuable in weight rewinding was the ability to "heat up" learning on a smaller set of weights, so they could adapt more quickly. And the fact that learning rate rewinding works better than weight rewinding suggests that there is value in the learned weights after all, that value is just outstripped by the benefit of rolling back to old learning rates. All in all, not a super radical conclusion, but a useful and practical one to have so clearly laid out in a paper. |

SUMO: Unbiased Estimation of Log Marginal Probability for Latent Variable Models

Yucen Luo, Alex Beatson, Mohammad Norouzi, Jun Zhu, David Duvenaud, Ryan P. Adams, Ricky T. Q. Chen

International Conference on Learning Representations - 2020 via Local Manual

Keywords:

Yucen Luo, Alex Beatson, Mohammad Norouzi, Jun Zhu, David Duvenaud, Ryan P. Adams, Ricky T. Q. Chen

International Conference on Learning Representations - 2020 via Local Manual

Keywords:

[link]
In this note, I'll implement the [Stochastically Unbiased Marginalization Objective (SUMO)](https://openreview.net/forum?id=SylkYeHtwr) to estimate the log-partition function of an energy funtion. Estimation of log-partition function has many important applications in machine learning. Take latent variable models or Bayeisian inference. The log-partition function of the posterior distribution $$p(z|x)=\frac{1}{Z}p(x|z)p(z)$$ is the log-marginal likelihood of the data $$\log Z = \log \int p(x|z)p(z)dz = \log p(x)$$. More generally, let $U(x)$ be some energy function which induces some density function $p(x)=\frac{e^{-U(x)}}{\int e^{-U(x)} dx}$. The common practice is to look at a variational form of the log-partition function, $$ \log Z = \log \int e^{-U(x)}dx = \max_{q(x)}\mathbb{E}[-U(x)-\log q(x)] \nonumber $$ Plugging in an arbitrary $q$ would normally yield a strict lower bound, which means $$ \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n \left(-U(x_i) - \log q(x_i)\right) \nonumber $$ for $x_i$ sampled *i.i.d.* from $q$, would be a biased estimate for $\log Z$. In particular, it would be an underestimation. To see this, lets define the energy function $U$ as follows: $$ U(x_1,x_2)= - \log \left(\frac{1}{2}\cdot e^{-\frac{(x_1+2)^2 + x_2^2}{2}} + \frac{1}{2}\cdot\frac{1}{4}e^{-\frac{(x_1-2)^2 + x_2^2}{8}}\right) \nonumber $$ It is not hard to see that $U$ is the energy function of a mixture of Gaussian distribution $\frac{1}{2}\mathcal{N}([-2,0], I) + \frac{1}{2}\mathcal{N}([2,0], 4I)$ with a normalizing constant $Z=2\pi\approx6.28$ and $\log Z\approx1.8379$. ```python def U(x): x1 = x[:,0] x2 = x[:,1] d2 = x2 ** 2 return - np.log(np.exp(-((x1+2) ** 2 + d2)/2)/2 + np.exp(-((x1-2) ** 2 + d2)/8)/4/2) ``` To visualize the density corresponding to the energy $p(x)\propto e^{-U(x)}$ ```python xx = np.linspace(-5,5,200) yy = np.linspace(-5,5,200) X = np.meshgrid(xx,yy) X = np.concatenate([X[0][:,:,None], X[1][:,:,None]], 2).reshape(-1,2) unnormalized_density = np.exp(-U(X)).reshape(200,200) plt.imshow(unnormalized_density) plt.axis('off') ``` https://i.imgur.com/CZSyIQp.png As a sanity check, lets also visualize the density of the mixture of Gaussians. ```python N1, N2 = mvn([-2,0], 1), mvn([2,0], 4) density = (np.exp(N1.logpdf(X))/2 + np.exp(N2.logpdf(X))/2).reshape(200,200) plt.imshow(density) plt.axis('off') print(np.allclose(unnormalized_density / density - 2*np.pi, 0)) ``` `True` https://i.imgur.com/g4inQxB.png Now if we estimate the log-partition function by estimating the variational lower bound, we get ```python q = mvn([0,0],5) xs = q.rvs(10000*5) elbo = - U(xs) - q.logpdf(xs) plt.hist(elbo, range(-5,10)) print("Estimate: %.4f / Ground true: %.4f" % (elbo.mean(), np.log(2*np.pi))) print("Empirical variance: %.4f" % elbo.var()) ``` `Estimate: 1.4595 / Ground true: 1.8379` `Empirical variance: 0.9921` https://i.imgur.com/vFzutuY.png The lower bound can be tightened via [importance sampling): $$ \log \int e^{-U(x)} dx \geq \mathbb{E}_{q^K}\left[\log\left(\frac{1}{K}\sum_{j=1}^K \frac{e^{-U(x_j)}}{q(x_j)}\right)\right] \nonumber $$ > This bound is tighter for larger $K$ partly due to the [concentration of the average](https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.03708.pdf) inside of the $\log$ function: when the random variable is more deterministic, using a local linear approximation near its mean is more accurate as there's less "mass" outside of some neighborhood of the mean. Now if we use this new estimator with $K=5$ ```python k = 5 xs = q.rvs(10000*k) elbo = - U(xs) - q.logpdf(xs) iwlb = elbo.reshape(10000,k) iwlb = np.log(np.exp(iwlb).mean(1)) plt.hist(iwlb, range(-5,10)) print("Estimate: %.4f / Ground true: %.4f" % (iwlb.mean(), np.log(2*np.pi))) print("Empirical variance: %.4f" % iwlb.var()) ``` `Estimate: 1.7616 / Ground true: 1.8379` `Empirical variance: 0.1544` https://i.imgur.com/sCcsQd4.png We see that both the bias and variance decrease. Finally, we use the [Stochastically Unbiased Marginalization Objective](https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SylkYeHtwr) (SUMO), which uses the *Russian Roulette* estimator to randomly truncate a telescoping series that converges in expectation to the log partition function. Let $\text{IWAE}_K = \log\left(\frac{1}{K}\sum_{j=1}^K \frac{e^{-U(x_j)}}{q(x_j)}\right)$ be the importance-weighted estimator, and $\Delta_K = \text{IWAE}_{K+1} - \text{IWAE}_K$ be the difference (which can be thought of as some form of correction). The SUMO estimator is defined as $$ \text{SUMO} = \text{IWAE}_1 + \sum_{k=1}^K \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \nonumber $$ where $K\sim p(K)=\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}=K)$. To see why this is an unbiased estimator, $$ \begin{align*} \mathbb{E}[\text{SUMO}] &= \mathbb{E}\left[\text{IWAE}_1 + \sum_{k=1}^K \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \right] \nonumber\\ &= \mathbb{E}_{x's}\left[\text{IWAE}_1 + \mathbb{E}_{K}\left[\sum_{k=1}^K \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \right]\right] \nonumber \end{align*} $$ The inner expectation can be further expanded $$ \begin{align*} \mathbb{E}_{K}\left[\sum_{k=1}^K \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \right] &= \sum_{K=1}^\infty P(K)\sum_{k=1}^K \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \\ &= \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \sum_{K=k}^\infty P(K) \\ &= \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{\Delta_K}{\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k)} \mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq k) \\ &= \sum_{k=1}^\infty\Delta_K \\ &= \text{IWAE}_{2} - \text{IWAE}_1 + \text{IWAE}_{3} - \text{IWAE}_2 + ... = \lim_{k\rightarrow\infty}\text{IWAE}_{k}-\text{IWAE}_1 \end{align*} $$ which shows $\mathbb{E}[\text{SUMO}] = \mathbb{E}[\text{IWAE}_\infty] = \log Z$. > (N.B.) Some care needs to be taken care of for taking the limit. See the paper for more formal derivation. A choice of $P(K)$ proposed in the paper satisfy $\mathbb{P}(\mathcal{K}\geq K)=\frac{1}{K}$. We can sample such a $K$ easily using the [inverse CDF](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_transform_sampling), $K=\lfloor\frac{u}{1-u}\rfloor$ where $u$ is sampled uniformly from the interval $[0,1]$. Now putting things all together, we can estimate the log-partition using SUMO. ```python count = 0 bs = 10 iwlb = list() while count <= 1000000: u = np.random.rand(1) k = np.ceil(u/(1-u)).astype(int)[0] xs = q.rvs(bs*(k+1)) elbo = - U(xs) - q.logpdf(xs) iwlb_ = elbo.reshape(bs, k+1) iwlb_ = np.log(np.cumsum(np.exp(iwlb_), 1) / np.arange(1,k+2)) iwlb_ = iwlb_[:,0] + ((iwlb_[:,1:k+1] - iwlb_[:,0:k]) * np.arange(1,k+1)).sum(1) count += bs * (k+1) iwlb.append(iwlb_) iwlb = np.concatenate(iwlb) plt.hist(iwlb, range(-5,10)) print("Estimate: %.4f / Ground true: %.4f" % (iwlb.mean(), np.log(2*np.pi))) print("Empirical variance: %.4f" % iwlb.var()) ``` `Estimate: 1.8359 / Ground true: 1.8379` `Empirical variance: 4.1794` https://i.imgur.com/04kPKo5.png Indeed the empirical average is quite close to the true log-partition of the energy function. However we can also see that the distribution of the estimator is much more spread-out. In fact, it is very heavy-tailed. Note that I did not tune the proposal distribution $q$ based on the ELBO, or IWAE or SUMO. In the paper, the authors propose to tune $q$ to minimize the variance of the $\text{SUMO}$ estimator, which might be an interesting trick to look at next. (Reposted, see more details and code from https://www.chinweihuang.com/pages/sumo) |

Mask R-CNN

He, Kaiming and Gkioxari, Georgia and Dollár, Piotr and Girshick, Ross B.

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

He, Kaiming and Gkioxari, Georgia and Dollár, Piotr and Girshick, Ross B.

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
Mask RCNN takes off from where Faster RCNN left, with some augmentations aimed at bettering instance segmentation (which was out of scope for FRCNN). Instance segmentation was achieved remarkably well in *DeepMask* , *SharpMask* and later *Feature Pyramid Networks* (FPN). Faster RCNN was not designed for pixel-to-pixel alignment between network inputs and outputs. This is most evident in how RoIPool , the de facto core operation for attending to instances, performs coarse spatial quantization for feature extraction. Mask RCNN fixes that by introducing RoIAlign in place of RoIPool. #### Methodology Mask RCNN retains most of the architecture of Faster RCNN. It adds the a third branch for segmentation. The third branch takes the output from RoIAlign layer and predicts binary class masks for each class. ##### Major Changes and intutions **Mask prediction** Mask prediction segmentation predicts a binary mask for each RoI using fully convolution - and the stark difference being usage of *sigmoid* activation for predicting final mask instead of *softmax*, implies masks don't compete with each other. This *decouples* segmentation from classification. The class prediction branch is used for class prediction and for calculating loss, the mask of predicted loss is used calculating Lmask. Also, they show that a single class agnostic mask prediction works almost as effective as separate mask for each class, thereby supporting their method of decoupling classification from segmentation **RoIAlign** RoIPool first quantizes a floating-number RoI to the discrete granularity of the feature map, this quantized RoI is then subdivided into spatial bins which are themselves quantized, and finally feature values covered by each bin are aggregated (usually by max pooling). Instead of quantization of the RoI boundaries or bin bilinear interpolation is used to compute the exact values of the input features at four regularly sampled locations in each RoI bin, and aggregate the result (using max or average). **Backbone architecture** Faster RCNN uses a VGG like structure for extracting features from image, weights of which were shared among RPN and region detection layers. Herein, authors experiment with 2 backbone architectures - ResNet based VGG like in FRCNN and ResNet based [FPN](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/LinDGHHB16) based. FPN uses convolution feature maps from previous layers and recombining them to produce pyramid of feature maps to be used for prediction instead of single-scale feature layer (final output of conv layer before connecting to fc layers was used in Faster RCNN) **Training Objective** The training objective looks like this ![](https://i.imgur.com/snUq73Q.png) Lmask is the addition from Faster RCNN. The method to calculate was mentioned above #### Observation Mask RCNN performs significantly better than COCO instance segmentation winners *without any bells and whiskers*. Detailed results are available in the paper |

Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition

He, Kaiming and Zhang, Xiangyu and Ren, Shaoqing and Sun, Jian

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

He, Kaiming and Zhang, Xiangyu and Ren, Shaoqing and Sun, Jian

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
Deeper networks should never have a higher **training** error than smaller ones. In the worst case, the layers should "simply" learn identities. It seems as this is not so easy with conventional networks, as they get much worse with more layers. So the idea is to add identity functions which skip some layers. The network only has to learn the **residuals**. Advantages: * Learning the identity becomes learning 0 which is simpler * Loss in information flow in the forward pass is not a problem anymore * No vanishing / exploding gradient * Identities don't have parameters to be learned ## Evaluation The learning rate starts at 0.1 and is divided by 10 when the error plateaus. Weight decay of 0.0001 ($10^{-4}$), momentum of 0.9. They use mini-batches of size 128. * ImageNet ILSVRC 2015: 3.57% (ensemble) * CIFAR-10: 6.43% * MS COCO: 59.0% mAp@0.5 (ensemble) * PASCAL VOC 2007: 85.6% mAp@0.5 * PASCAL VOC 2012: 83.8% mAp@0.5 ## See also * [DenseNets](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/1608.06993) |

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