Welcome to ShortScience.org! |

- ShortScience.org is a platform for post-publication discussion aiming to improve accessibility and reproducibility of research ideas.
- The website has 1583 public summaries, mostly in machine learning, written by the community and organized by paper, conference, and year.
- Reading summaries of papers is useful to obtain the perspective and insight of another reader, why they liked or disliked it, and their attempt to demystify complicated sections.
- Also, writing summaries is a good exercise to understand the content of a paper because you are forced to challenge your assumptions when explaining it.
- Finally, you can keep up to date with the flood of research by reading the latest summaries on our Twitter and Facebook pages.

Understanding Adversarial Training: Increasing Local Stability of Neural Nets through Robust Optimization

Uri Shaham and Yutaro Yamada and Sahand Negahban

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local arXiv

Keywords: stat.ML, cs.LG, cs.NE

**First published:** 2015/11/17 (7 years ago)

**Abstract:** We propose a general framework for increasing local stability of Artificial
Neural Nets (ANNs) using Robust Optimization (RO). We achieve this through an
alternating minimization-maximization procedure, in which the loss of the
network is minimized over perturbed examples that are generated at each
parameter update. We show that adversarial training of ANNs is in fact
robustification of the network optimization, and that our proposed framework
generalizes previous approaches for increasing local stability of ANNs.
Experimental results reveal that our approach increases the robustness of the
network to existing adversarial examples, while making it harder to generate
new ones. Furthermore, our algorithm improves the accuracy of the network also
on the original test data.
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Uri Shaham and Yutaro Yamada and Sahand Negahban

arXiv e-Print archive - 2015 via Local arXiv

Keywords: stat.ML, cs.LG, cs.NE

[link]
Shaham et al. provide an interpretation of adversarial training in the context of robust optimization. In particular, adversarial training is posed as min-max problem (similar to other related work, as I found): $\min_\theta \sum_i \max_{r \in U_i} J(\theta, x_i + r, y_i)$ where $U_i$ is called the uncertainty set corresponding to sample $x_i$ – in the context of adversarial examples, this might be an $\epsilon$-ball around the sample quantifying the maximum perturbation allowed; $(x_i, y_i)$ are training samples, $\theta$ the parameters and $J$ the trianing objective. In practice, when the overall minimization problem is tackled using gradient descent, the inner maximization problem cannot be solved exactly (as this would be inefficient). Instead Shaham et al. Propose to alternatingly make single steps both for the minimization and the maximization problems – in the spirit of generative adversarial network training. Also find this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/). |

Ensemble Adversarial Training: Attacks and Defenses

Florian Tramèr and Alexey Kurakin and Nicolas Papernot and Ian Goodfellow and Dan Boneh and Patrick McDaniel

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local arXiv

Keywords: stat.ML, cs.CR, cs.LG

**First published:** 2017/05/19 (5 years ago)

**Abstract:** Adversarial examples are perturbed inputs designed to fool machine learning
models. Adversarial training injects such examples into training data to
increase robustness. To scale this technique to large datasets, perturbations
are crafted using fast single-step methods that maximize a linear approximation
of the model's loss. We show that this form of adversarial training converges
to a degenerate global minimum, wherein small curvature artifacts near the data
points obfuscate a linear approximation of the loss. The model thus learns to
generate weak perturbations, rather than defend against strong ones. As a
result, we find that adversarial training remains vulnerable to black-box
attacks, where we transfer perturbations computed on undefended models, as well
as to a powerful novel single-step attack that escapes the non-smooth vicinity
of the input data via a small random step. We further introduce Ensemble
Adversarial Training, a technique that augments training data with
perturbations transferred from other models. On ImageNet, Ensemble Adversarial
Training yields models with strong robustness to black-box attacks. In
particular, our most robust model won the first round of the NIPS 2017
competition on Defenses against Adversarial Attacks.
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Florian Tramèr and Alexey Kurakin and Nicolas Papernot and Ian Goodfellow and Dan Boneh and Patrick McDaniel

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local arXiv

Keywords: stat.ML, cs.CR, cs.LG

[link]
Tramèr et al. introduce both a novel adversarial attack as well as a defense mechanism against black-box attacks termed ensemble adversarial training. I first want to highlight that – in addition to the proposed methods – the paper gives a very good discussion of state-of-the-art attacks as well as defenses and how to put them into context. Tramèr et al. consider black-box attacks, focussing on transferrable adversarial examples. Their main observation is as follows: one-shot attacks (i.e. one evaluation of the model's gradient) on adversarially trained models are likely to overfit to the model's training loss. This observation has two aspects that are experimentally validated in the paper. First, the loss of the adversarially trained model increases sharply when considering adversarial examples crafted on a different model; second, the network learns to fool the attacker by, locally, misleading the gradient – this means that perturbations computed on adversarially trained models are specialized to the local loss. These observations are also illustrated in Figure 1, however, I refer to the paper for a detailed discussion. https://i.imgur.com/dIpRz9P.png Figure 1: Illustration of the discussed observations. On the left, the loss function of an adversarially trained model considering a sample $x = x + \epsilon_1 x' + \epsilon_2 x''$ where $x'$ is a perturbation computed on the adversarially trained model and $x''$ is a perturbation computed on a different model. On the right, zoomed in version where it can be seen that the loss rises sharply in the direction of $\epsilon_1$; i.e. the model gives misleading gradients. Based on the above observations, Tramèr et al. First introduce a new one-shot attack exploiting the fact that the adversarially trained model is trained on overfitted perturbations and second introduce a new counter-measure for training more robust networks. Their attack is quite simple; they consider one Fast-Gradient Sign Method (FSGM) step, but apply a random perturbation first to leave the local vicinity of the sample first: $x' = x + \alpha \text{sign}(\mathcal{N}(0, I))$ $x'' = x' + (\epsilon - \alpha)\text{sign}(\nabla_{x'} J(x', y))$ where $J$ is the loss function and $y$ the label corresponding to sample $x$. In experiments, they show that the attack has higher success rates on adversarially trained models. To counter the proposed attack, they propose ensemble adversarial training. The key idea is to train the model utilizing not only adversarial samples crafted on the model itself but also transferred from pre-trained models. On MNIST, for example, they randomly select 64 FGSM samples from 4 different models (including the one in training). Experimentally, they show that ensemble adversarial training improves the defense again all considered attacks, including FGSM, iterative FGSM as well as the proposed attack. Also view this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/). |

Gaussian Processes in Machine Learning

Rasmussen, Carl Edward

Springer Advanced Lectures on Machine Learning - 2003 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Rasmussen, Carl Edward

Springer Advanced Lectures on Machine Learning - 2003 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
In this tutorial paper, Carl E. Rasmussen gives an introduction to Gaussian Process Regression focusing on the definition, the hyperparameter learning and future research directions. A Gaussian Process is completely defined by its mean function $m(\pmb{x})$ and its covariance function (kernel) $k(\pmb{x},\pmb{x}')$. The mean function $m(\pmb{x})$ corresponds to the mean vector $\pmb{\mu}$ of a Gaussian distribution whereas the covariance function $k(\pmb{x}, \pmb{x}')$ corresponds to the covariance matrix $\pmb{\Sigma}$. Thus, a Gaussian Process $f \sim \mathcal{GP}\left(m(\pmb{x}), k(\pmb{x}, \pmb{x}')\right)$ is a generalization of a Gaussian distribution over vectors to a distribution over functions. A random function vector $\pmb{\mathrm{f}}$ can be generated by a Gaussian Process through the following procedure: 1. Compute the components $\mu_i$ of the mean vector $\pmb{\mu}$ for each input $\pmb{x}_i$ using the mean function $m(\pmb{x})$ 2. Compute the components $\Sigma_{ij}$ of the covariance matrix $\pmb{\Sigma}$ using the covariance function $k(\pmb{x}, \pmb{x}')$ 3. A function vector $\pmb{\mathrm{f}} = [f(\pmb{x}_1), \dots, f(\pmb{x}_n)]^T$ can be drawn from the Gaussian distribution $\pmb{\mathrm{f}} \sim \mathcal{N}\left(\pmb{\mu}, \pmb{\Sigma} \right)$ Applying this procedure to regression, means that the resulting function vector $\pmb{\mathrm{f}}$ shall be drawn in a way that a function vector $\pmb{\mathrm{f}}$ is rejected if it does not comply with the training data $\mathcal{D}$. This is achieved by conditioning the distribution on the training data $\mathcal{D}$ yielding the posterior Gaussian Process $f \rvert \mathcal{D} \sim \mathcal{GP}(m_D(\pmb{x}), k_D(\pmb{x},\pmb{x}'))$ for noise-free observations with the posterior mean function $m_D(\pmb{x}) = m(\pmb{x}) + \pmb{\Sigma}(\pmb{X},\pmb{x})^T \pmb{\Sigma}^{-1}(\pmb{\mathrm{f}} - \pmb{\mathrm{m}})$ and the posterior covariance function $k_D(\pmb{x},\pmb{x}')=k(\pmb{x},\pmb{x}') - \pmb{\Sigma}(\pmb{X}, \pmb{x}')$ with $\pmb{\Sigma}(\pmb{X},\pmb{x})$ being a vector of covariances between every training case of $\pmb{X}$ and $\pmb{x}$. Noisy observations $y(\pmb{x}) = f(\pmb{x}) + \epsilon$ with $\epsilon \sim \mathcal{N}(0,\sigma_n^2)$ can be taken into account with a second Gaussian Process with mean $m$ and covariance function $k$ resulting in $f \sim \mathcal{GP}(m,k)$ and $y \sim \mathcal{GP}(m, k + \sigma_n^2\delta_{ii'})$. The figure illustrates the cases of noisy observations (variance at training points) and of noise-free observationshttps://i.imgur.com/BWvsB7T.png (no variance at training points). In the Machine Learning perspective, the mean and the covariance function are parametrised by hyperparameters and provide thus a way to include prior knowledge e.g. knowing that the mean function is a second order polynomial. To find the optimal hyperparameters $\pmb{\theta}$, 1. determine the log marginal likelihood $L= \mathrm{log}(p(\pmb{y} \rvert \pmb{x}, \pmb{\theta}))$, 2. take the first partial derivatives of $L$ w.r.t. the hyperparameters, and 3. apply an optimization algorithm. It should be noted that a regularization term is not necessary for the log marginal likelihood $L$ because it already contains a complexity penalty term. Also, the tradeoff between data-fit and penalty is performed automatically. Gaussian Processes provide a very flexible way for finding a suitable regression model. However, they require the high computational complexity $\mathcal{O}(n^3)$ due to the inversion of the covariance matrix. In addition, the generalization of Gaussian Processes to non-Gaussian likelihoods remains complicated. |

Show, Attend and Tell: Neural Image Caption Generation with Visual Attention

Xu, Kelvin and Ba, Jimmy and Kiros, Ryan and Cho, Kyunghyun and Courville, Aaron C. and Salakhutdinov, Ruslan and Zemel, Richard S. and Bengio, Yoshua

International Conference on Machine Learning - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Xu, Kelvin and Ba, Jimmy and Kiros, Ryan and Cho, Kyunghyun and Courville, Aaron C. and Salakhutdinov, Ruslan and Zemel, Richard S. and Bengio, Yoshua

International Conference on Machine Learning - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
TLDR; The authors use an attention mechanism in image caption generation, allowing the decoder RNN focus on specific parts of the image. In order find the correspondence between words and image patches, the RNN uses a lower convolutional layer as its input (before pooling). The authors propose both a "hard" attention (trained using sampling methods) and "soft" attention (trained end-to-end) mechanism, and show qualitatively that the decoder focuses on sensible regions while generating text, adding an additional layer of interpretability to the model. The attention-based models achieve state-of-the art on Flickr8k, Flickr30 and MS Coco. #### Key Points - To find image correspondence use lower convolutional layers to attend to. - Two attention mechanisms: Soft and hard. Depending on evaluation metric (BLEU vs. METERO) one or the other performs better. - Largest data set (MS COCO) takes 3 days to train on Titan Black GPU. Oxford VGG. - Soft attention is same as for seq2seq models. - Attention weights are visualized by upsampling and applying a Gaussian #### Notes/Questions - Would've liked to see an explanation of when/how soft vs. hard attention does better. - What is the computational overhead of using the attention mechanism? Is it significant? |

Neural Message Passing for Quantum Chemistry

Gilmer, Justin and Schoenholz, Samuel S. and Riley, Patrick F. and Vinyals, Oriol and Dahl, George E.

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Gilmer, Justin and Schoenholz, Samuel S. and Riley, Patrick F. and Vinyals, Oriol and Dahl, George E.

arXiv e-Print archive - 2017 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
In the years before this paper came out in 2017, a number of different graph convolution architectures - which use weight-sharing and order-invariant operations to create representations at nodes in a graph that are contextualized by information in the rest of the graph - had been suggested for learning representations of molecules. The authors of this paper out of Google sought to pull all of these proposed models into a single conceptual framework, for the sake of better comparing and testing the design choices that went into them. All empirical tests were done using the QM9 dataset, where 134,000 molecules have predicted chemical properties attached to them, things like the amount of energy released if bombs are sundered and the energy of electrons at different electron shells. https://i.imgur.com/Mmp8KO6.png An interesting note is that these properties weren't measured empirically, but were simulated by a very expensive quantum simulation, because the former wouldn't be feasible for this large of a dataset. However, this is still a moderately interesting test because, even if we already have the capability to computationally predict these features, a neural network would do much more quickly. And, also, one might aspirationally hope that architectures which learn good representations of molecules for quantum predictions are also useful for tasks with a less available automated prediction mechanism. The framework assumes the existence of "hidden" feature vectors h at each node (atom) in the graph, as well as features that characterize the edges between nodes (whether that characterization comes through sorting into discrete bond categories or through a continuous representation). The features associated with each atom at the lowest input level of the molecule-summarizing networks trained here include: the element ID, the atomic number, whether it accepts electrons or donates them, whether it's in an aromatic system, and which shells its electrons are in. https://i.imgur.com/J7s0q2e.png Given these building blocks, the taxonomy lays out three broad categories of function, each of which different architectures implement in slightly different ways. 1. The Message function, M(). This function is defined with reference to a node w, that the message is coming from, and a node v, that it's being sent to, and is meant to summarize the information coming from w to inform the node representation that will be calculated at v. It takes into account the feature vectors of one or both nodes at the next level down, and sometimes also incorporates feature vectors attached to the edge connecting the two nodes. In a notable example of weight sharing, you'd use the same Message function for every combination of v and w, because you need to be able to process an arbitrary number of pairs, with each v having a different number of neighbors. The simplest example you might imagine here is a simple concatenation of incoming node and edge features; a more typical example from the architectures reviewed is a concatenation followed by a neural network layer. The aggregate message being sent to the receiver node is calculated by summing together the messages from each incoming vector (though it seems like other options are possible; I'm a bit confused why the paper presented summing as the only order-invariant option). 2. The Update function, U(). This function governs how to take the aggregated message vector sent to a particular node, and combine that with the prior-layer representation at that node, to come up with a next-layer representation at that node. Similarly, the same Update function weights are shared across all atoms. 3. The Readout function, R(), which takes the final-layer representation of each atom node and aggregates the representations into a final graph-level representation an order-invariant way Rather than following in the footsteps of the paper by describing each proposed model type and how it can be described in this framework, I'll instead try to highlight some of the more interesting ways in which design choices differed across previously proposed architectures. - Does the message function being sent from w to v depend on the feature value at both w and v, or just v? To put the question more colloquially, you might imagine w wanting to contextually send different information based on different values of the feature vector at node v, and this extra degree of expressivity (not present in the earliest 2015 paper), seems like a quite valuable addition (in that all subsequent papers include it) - Are the edge features static, categorical things, or are they feature vectors that get iteratively updated in the same way that the node vectors do? For most of the architectures reviewed, the former is true, but the authors found that the highest performance in their tests came from networks with continuous edge vectors, rather than just having different weights for different category types of edge - Is the Readout function something as simple as a summation of all top-level feature vectors, or is it more complex? Again, the authors found that they got the best performance by using a more complex approach, a Set2Set aggregator, which uses item-to-item attention within the set of final-layer atom representations to construct an aggregated grap-level embedding The empirical tests within the paper highlight a few more interestingly relevant design choices that are less directly captured by the framework. The first is the fact that it's quite beneficial to explicitly include Hydrogen atoms as part of the graph, rather than just "attaching" them to their nearest-by atoms as a count that goes on that atom's feature vector. The second is that it's valuable to start out your edge features with a continuous representation of the spatial distance between atoms, along with an embedding of the bond type. This is particularly worth considering because getting spatial distance data for a molecule requires solving the free-energy problem to determine its spatial conformation, a costly process. We might ideally prefer a network that can work on bond information alone. The authors do find a non-spatial-information network that can perform reasonably well - reaching full accuracy on 5 of 13 targets, compared to 11 with spatial information. However, the difference is notable, which, at least from my perspective, begs the question of whether it'd ever be possible to learn representations that can match the performance of spatially-informed ones without explicitly providing that information. |

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